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When Microsoft first released the Kinect back in 2010, the company promised that it would be a game-changer in console development. It has had remarkable market success, but Kinect is beginning to move out of the living room and into research labs all over the planet.

What makes a $120 toy so valuable to scientists?

It turns out, for its small size and price, Kinect is actually a pretty sophisticated piece of equipment. The way it recognizes 3D objects is remarkably similar to sonar, using ‘time-of-flight’ technology. That means that when you stand in front of Kinect, the camera emits near-infrared lights and then measures how long it takes for that light to bounce back. The longer the light takes to get back, the further away the object is. Not only is this useful in determining how far away you are and whether you or not your couch are the same object, Kinect can render the information in 3D. Coupled with skeleton tracking to recognize human gestures, Kinect bundles a number of technologies that may just as useful to scientists as gamers. Modifying Kinect for science is still a very new concept, but here are some of the more exciting projects that are currently in development:

1. Teaching Basic Anatomy

As of writing, the medical community has probably been the most enthusiastic adopter of Kinect, using it to monitor dementia patients and view MRI scans in operating rooms. Eventually, Kinect may not merely help patients, but aspiring doctors as well.

This is where Mirracle comes in. Mirracle is a Kinect mod created at the Technical University of Munich solely to provide interactive anatomy lessons. Using existing tracking features, Mirracle projects a 3D window into your own body while you stand in front of a mirror. Granted, the interior you are viewing came from a scanned cadaver, but it is still a pretty nifty way to help you learn the difference between the ulna and scapla. A prototype is currently being tested at the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, but hopefully Mirracle will be coming soon to a medical school near you.

2. Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorders

In a traditional psychiatric evaluation, doctors ask patients to fill out self-assessment forms to help make a diagnosis. But what happens if your patient is a child? Current research suggests that children with various psychiatric disorders display abnormal movement and behaviors before the actual onset of a disorder. So when doctors try to make a diagnosis, they observe video footage of the child and consult with the parents. The problem is that when a diagnosis is made based largely on behavioral observation; the interpretation of the data is subjective rather than quantitative.

Dr. Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos of the University of Minnesota is hoping to change the way the evaluation process works, all with Kinect.  He is currently working to repurpose the Kinect to record and track body movements in children. The Kinect will eventually be able to analyze the data and identify any abnormalities that may lead to a diagnosis. Dr. Papanikolopoulos hopes that his work will eventually be used in the next few years to help diagnose autism, ADD and OCD. With solid quantitative data, the Kinect may add a crucial piece to making psychiatric diagnosis.

3. Exploring Glaciers and Asteroids

Thus far, we have discussed projects that rely principally on Kinect’s skeleton tracking features. Remember how I also mentioned that Kinect could scan and record information about objects in 3D? Scientists in a number of disciplines are just beginning to talk about tapping into the Kinect’s scanning capacity for research. Laser mapping (LIDAR) has already been in use for a while, but the equipment in question can cost anywhere from $20,000 to $100,000. Not to mention, if you or a clumsy research assistant accidentally drops your LIDAR device, you can’t just run into Best Buy to get a new one. Only specialized facilities can repair LIDAR equipment, adding even more time and cost to a research project.

Although Kinect can only scan up to 16 feet away, it still has potential in geology. University of California at Santa Cruz Ph.D candidate Ken Mankoff has suggested that the Kinect can be modified as an inexpensive portable scanner to use in the field. He has already put it to use in his own work, monitoring the Rieperbreen Glacier in Norway to predict how the ice would flow towards the sea. Naor Movshovitz, also of the University of California at Santa Cruz, even envisions Kinect as a tool to study asteroids. Scientists will still have to address how to protect the device from moisture and extreme temperatures. However, it might not be long before even more geologists and astronomers learn of Kinect’s potential.

4. Scanning Archaeology Sites

Archaeology has come a very long way since the days of Howard Carter and King Tut. Contrary to popular opinion, archaeologists are not simply just digging up the past. They are trying to preserve the context of a site as well as find artifacts. Context is particularly important, since where an artifact is in the layers of the ground is crucial in establishing dates and the duration of human occupation on a site. If a site is poorly documented or looted, the archaeological value may be destroyed because the contexts are mixed up. Therefore, it is crucial to record the site down to the position of even the smallest pottery shard.

University of California at San Diego scientist Jürgen Schulze is planning a Kinect mod, dubbed ArKinect, in Jordan to map an archaeological site in 3D. The plan is to scan artifacts in 3D as soon as they are found on site. These 3D models could record far more details about individual artifacts than the traditional photograph, giving insight into how they were used. Eventually, Schulze hopes that ArKinect will be able to scan and digitize whole archaeological sites.

Better yet, where will these models be viewed?

Ladies and Gentleman, say hello to StarCAVE.  It is a 360-degree, 16 panel virtual reality environment where users can interact with 3D objects and environments. StarCAVE has already been used to explore environments in architecture, archaeology and biochemistry. A highly accurate archaeology site in 3D can help preserve a site’s context, as well as permit researchers from around the world to study it.

The Future

As of writing, most of these projects are either in prototype or testing phases. Kinect has only been around for a couple of years, and scientists are just beginning to see what potential the device has for their work. With more time and successful results, perhaps more scientists will start to seriously think about adding that $120 toy to their tool belt. Kinect has already given us incredible gameplay, and hopefully some amazing finds as well!


I know what you are thinking. There are plenty of tech and game bloggers, as well as anthropology and archaeology blogs. So why bother? Do we need yet another reviewer or armchair archaeologist? Besides, what do these subjects have to do with each other anyway?

Frankly, I used to wonder that myself. I have been an archaeology and history buff for as long as I can remember. At the same time, I enjoy my gadgets, software and games. The cultures of these groups however cannot be more different if they tried. Anthropology and archaeology study human culture, but the focus is traditionally on past achievements. Tech and games tend to stick to the present at the earliest, but overwhelmingly are about anticipating the future.

Can there be a middle ground?

The answer to this came on my first archaeology dig in the South. Temperatures regularly reached 100 degrees, way hotter than what my New England couch potato body was used to. Not to mention that it was the first time I had ever held a pickaxe, let alone used one. And don’t get me started on the mosquitoes. Still, for all the physical discomfort, seeing my first ceramic shards emerging from the ground was probably one of the most rewarding experiences of my life.

One day on site, I went into the onsite lab/museum where excavated artifacts were restored and displayed. Amongst the myriad delftware and earthenware ceramics was a very drab jar with a texture reminiscent of a barnacle-covered rock. What was this artifact?

It turned out that the artifact was something called a Hessian crucible. This was a heat-resistant vessel that could be used to mix gold or glass without exploding. The kaolinite clay the vessel was made of contained mullite, an aluminum silicate that today is used in building materials, electronic packaging devices, and catalytic converters. It was also quite useful for testing for the presence of gold ore. If your crucible contained gold, the sample should glisten accordingly when heated and oxidized. Time and time again, colonists would get excited because their soil samples had glistening ores in them. The celebrations were a bit premature, as a certain type of mica called biotite reacted the same way when exposed to extreme heat. So, our colonists found themselves with Fool’s Gold!

It was then that I had an epiphany: this crucible wasn’t an ipad, but it was a 400-year-old gadget. The alchemists responsible for the metallurgical knowledge to make the crucible were not scientists or engineers in the modern sense of the term, but they were still tinkering away to make a new technology. Soon, I began to see the myriad pieces of armor, hoes, and projectile points (AKA arrowheads) on the site not as past relics, but as signs of human technological history. Even the tiny little 17th century dice games reminded me of 21st century gamers wasting time on Angry Birds. We may have made incredible technological strides in the past few decades, but ultimately, humans in many cultures have been finding ways to innovate and have fun for millennia.

Increasingly, these seemingly disparate fields have found more ways to compliment one another. Archaeologists have been able to go to places that they would have never dreamed of before thanks to technology. Some worthy examples include the use of ALVIN submersibles to discover the Titanic and NASA satellite imagery to map Angkor Wat. Anthropology, a field intimately related to archaeology, is being increasingly used by tech and game companies to get to know their users better. Did you know that Facebook is extremely popular in Indonesia, but due to poor-quality broadband, most users access it on their mobile phones? Or that World of Warcraft users held an in-game funeral for a guild member who had died in real life? Is there really a difference between ‘real’ and ‘virtual’ culture?

As our world gets more interdisciplinary, it seems that there are more ways for these ‘disparate’ disciplines to collaborate more than ever. This blog is as much of a learning experience for me as it is for the reader. I hope we can have fun together as I find what happens when these worlds intersect!